Moral Muteness

道德哑当我们沟通的方式obscure our moral beliefs and commitments, or don’t voice moral sentiments at all.

讨论问题

1.除非在涉及非法行为的情况下,客户始终不应该是对的吗?

2.想一想你应该用对你的价值观冲突的东西,而是沉默的时候。你用什么合理化来证明没有发言?你没有发言的后果是什么?

3.考虑一下你确实说过了对你的价值观冲突的事情的时间。有什么动力你说话?说话经常需要勇气;让你有勇气发表说话的是什么?

4. In the video, a fraternity member described a situation in which he did not speak up to object to hazing in his fraternity because the people doing the hazing were his friends, and he did not want any harm to come to his friends. What would a real friend do in a situation like the one he described? What would he say; what arguments would he make?

5.在视频中,一位年轻女子提到了一个为其他学生为金钱写作的朋友,这是学术欺诈。真正的朋友在这样的情况下会做些什么?真正的朋友会说什么;她将使用什么参数?

6.视频区分了“请o-holic”和可值得信赖的商业顾问。你认为是什么是值得信赖的商业顾问的特征?(请注意,信任的组成部分通常是能力,完整性和同情心。)

实例探究

完整披露:操纵捐助者

学习公共关系的大学生Jenny在Casa Tia Maria筹款部门接受了实习职位。* Casa Tia Maria是美国的非营利组织,为中美洲移民提供庇护所,同时他们寻找常驻房屋和就业。除了避难所,Casa Tia Maria还提供食品,服装和英语课程。在保护永久外壳之前,大多数移民留在避难所。

After Jenny had worked at Casa Tia Maria for two weeks, Mary, the director of development, asked Jenny to accompany her to a fundraising dinner at a luxurious downtown hotel. Many wealthy and influential individuals were in attendance. After most of the guests had left, Mary and Jenny were approached by Robert, a Texas oil baron and one of the state’s biggest philanthropists. Robert was known to donate to almost any cause as long as he found it to be what he considered “morally sound” and to the benefit of “hard-working Americans.”

Mary and Robert talked for a few minutes about Casa Tia Maria and its specific needs. Jenny noticed, however, that most of Mary’s answers to Robert’s questions about the shelter’s clients were vague. When Robert said that he was happy to lend a hand to any poor American citizen, Jenny knew he clearly did not understand that immigrants, who were not U.S. citizens, were the shelter’s clientele. Mary said nothing to correct Robert’s misperception.

罗伯特将一张支票簿从他的夹克中拉出来并写了一个大量的支票。当他递给玛丽时,他说,“我很高兴能够帮助努力工作美国人。”然后他迅速变动走开了。

*本案研究是基于大学生的实际经验。姓名和情况已经改变,但案例研究反映了学生面临的关键伦理困境。

讨论问题

1.在这种情况下,可以提示詹妮在道德上静音是什么?或者,可以提示珍妮不是在道德上静音?解释。

2.谁是利益攸关方,对每个派对的股份是什么?如何影响珍妮的行为?解释。

3.假设Jenny决定破坏道德变异,锻炼道德想象力,并给她的价值观发言。你认为她应该做些什么以及为什么?您的答案应包括但不限于,Jenny应该制作的论据,以及在谁以及在哪些背景下。提出了一个行动计划。

4. As this case demonstrates, people in nonprofit organizations are far from immune from ethical issues. Do you think that the nonprofit setting affects any aspects of your responses to the above questions? Explain.

5.您认为非营利组织中的员工更有可能将牺牲猎物陷入任何特定的偏见或压力吗?您认为人们对非营利组织的员工员工通常对非营利性公司的员工有更高的期望吗?解释你的推理。

6.您是否曾在类似于Jenny的情况下成为实习生或员工?情况是什么?你做了什么以及为什么?

参考书目

广告从业者如何观赏道德:道德变异,道德近视和道德想象
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4189254.

价值-Driven Leadership Development: Where We Have Been and Where We Could Go
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15416518.2012.708854

给价值观发言课程
http://www.babson.edu/academics/teaching-research/gvv/pages/curriculum.aspx.

教学行为道德十博官网app下载
//www.hiroo-gf.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/taching-behavioral- ethics-by-robert-a.-prentice.pdf.

十博官网app下载行为伦理与教学道德决策
//www.hiroo-gf.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/ethicaldecisionmaiss.pdf.

Astros的签署偷窃丑闻

主要联盟棒球(MLB)促进了极具竞争力的环境。薪酬(和代言)中数千万美元可以悬挂在平衡中,具体取决于玩家是否表现良好或差。同样,数亿美元的价值是作为世界系列荣耀队的业主的股份。此外,粉丝,玩家和业主只想让他们的团队获胜。每个人都讨厌丢失!

It is no surprise, then, that the history of big-time baseball is dotted with cheating scandals ranging from the Black Sox scandal of 1919 (“Say it ain’t so, Joe!”), to Gaylord Perry’s spitter, to the corked bats of Albert Belle and Sammy Sosa, to the widespread use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) in the 1990s and early 2000s. Now, the Houston Astros have joined this inglorious list.

Catchers signal to pitchers which type of pitch to throw, typically by holding down a certain number of fingers on their non-gloved hand between their legs as they crouch behind the plate. It is typically not as simple as just one finger for a fastball and two for a curve, but not a lot more complicated than that.

2016年9月,名为Derek Vigoa的Astros实习生为General Manager Jeff Luh Now提供了一个PowerPoint演示文稿,它具有以算法编程的基于Excel的应用程序。该算法旨在(且可以)解码对抗队伍捕获到其投手的球队的投球迹象。天星称为它“码扣”。一个天星员工提到了演变为“黑暗艺术”的迹象偷窃系统。[1]

MLB规则允许跑步者站在第二个基地上窃取迹象并将它们中继到击球手中,但MLB规则严格禁止使用电子手段来破译标志。Astros的“码扣式”公然违反了这些规则。

根据华尔街日报作家Jared Diamond:

The way Codebreaker worked was simple: Somebody would watch an in-game live feed and log the catcher’s signals into the spreadsheet, as well as the type of pitch that was actually thrown. With that information, Codebreaker determined how the signs corresponded with different pitches. Once decided, that information would be communicated through intermediaries to a baserunner, who would relay them to the hitter.

从2017年6月左右开始,系统被Astro球员装饰。他们开始在挖掘附近的显示器上观看一场直播游戏,然后将垃圾桶爆炸可以将即将到来的球场传达给击球手。“BANGING计划”持续到2017年世界系列,Astros赢得了洛杉矶道奇队。[2]

这一切都发生了,尽管2017赛季迟到了,但MLB将波士顿红袜队从他们的视频室捕获到坐在防空洞中的培训师穿的苹果手表。MLB专员Rob Manfred被罚款红袜队并向所有违反非法电子签名的团队发出强烈警告。[3]

然而,Astros的计划持续到2018赛季的游戏以及家庭游戏,尽管其他团队非常可疑的是,天星正在窃取迹象。其他团队经常改变自己的迹象几次游戏试图挫败星星疑似迹象。引用了一个对立团队的执行官说:“整个行业都知道他们一直在欺骗他们的驴子三到四年。每个人都知道它。“[4]Indeed, many teams had complained to MLB’s executives about the Astros’ cheating. Some suspect the cheating continued through the 2019 season although others think not, and MLB found no convincing evidence of it.[5]

签署偷窃可能似乎并不像它会产生很大的优势。毕竟,即使击球手知道一定的球场即将到来,他仍然必须击中它。即使你知道这是即将到来,它并不容易击中100英里/小时的快球或主要的联赛口径滑块。尽管如此,优点是实质性的。据华盛顿国民的投注教练保罗门伦(Paul Menhart)介绍,“这是世界上踩着那堆的最糟糕的感觉,并且有一个想法,击球人知道发生了什么。这是最令人不安的感受之一。你觉得无奈。你刚刚被勾选到你失去焦点和自信的地方。“[6]华盛顿国民赢得了2019年世界系列的青睐。他们至少部分地赢得了Astros试图窃取他们的迹象,并建立精致的对策,包括每个投手的多组迹象。[7]

毫无疑问,许多天星球员积极参与该计划。Astros Manager,AJ Hinch,清楚地了解它。虽然没有密封的证据,但总经理(GM)Rob LuhnHow也有很多,虽然没有密封证据也知道该计划。Carlos Beltran,一个名人堂的口径球员,靠近他的20年的演奏事业结束时是该计划的领导者。亚历克斯科拉是一个主要的煽动者。所有者吉姆起重机似乎不知道他的俱乐部正在练习的黑暗艺术。[8]

丑闻于2019年11月12日成为公众,当时Astros的投手迈克·菲尔斯在“运动员”发表的面试中吹口哨吹口哨。[9]Although some current MLB players praised Fiers for coming forward about the scandal, other players criticized him for violating baseball’s presumed “code of silence,” also called the “clubhouse code.”[10]MLB随后推出了一项调查,授予Astros球员免疫力,以回报他们的终止。专员抢劫曼弗雷德很快发出了一个九页报告,发现大多数天星球员都知道该计划,许多人参加了它。该报告称,经理Hinch知道该计划,通用汽车LuhNow应该防止它。[11]Commissioner Manfred suspended both Hinch and Luhnow, who were quickly fired by Astros’ owner Crane. MLB fined the Astros $5 million, and stripped the club of its first- and second-round draft picks in both 2020 and 2021.[12]

还有其他堕落。刚被聘请为纽约梅尔经理的贝尔特兰被解雇。也被解雇了随后成为波士顿红袜队经理的科拉。2020年4月下旬,曼弗雷德发现红袜队在2018赛季做了一些非法迹象。令人惊讶的是,他得出结论,经理科拉和大多数红袜队员都不知道。曼弗雷德以丢失的选秀权的形式强加了对红袜队组织的惩罚。但再次,参加该计划的球员都没有受到惩罚。[13]

曼弗雷德的决定不惩罚球员被许多人严厉批评。他声称赋予豁免换来的信息是快速发现真相的最佳方式。这种方法受到了赞扬的,[14]but other observers were unconvinced.[15]他还认为,很难确定作弊丑闻给予天空的有多少优势。然而,许多主要联赛球员 - 包括游戏的最佳球员,迈克鳟鱼 - 建议他们很想知道投球是什么。[16]Manfred also claimed that with so many players involved to different degrees, it would be difficult to apportion blame appropriately. Additionally, MLB had stated in its 2017 warning about sign-stealing that it would hold management responsible for violations.[17]

有些人建议曼弗雷斯只是试图尽量减少对MLB的形象的损害。这场比赛从Ped丑闻中得到了黑眼睛,每年都会作为巴里·债券,罗杰·克莱斯,罗杰·克莱斯和其他人拒绝进入棒球名人堂的运动员队,他们坚持以MLB以那种方式惩罚他们的作弊从不做。和天星球员如Carlos Correa,Jose Altuve和Justin Verlander可能有更好的机会进入名声,而不是如果被暂停作弊。[18]

天空损坏是显着的。前大联盟杜格格兰维尔表示,天星“自私行为使每个人都质疑未来的有效性和过去的真实性”,“结论是MLB现在面临着”存在危机“。[19]退伍军人捕手斯蒂芬Vogt说:“我们游戏的完整性是我们拥有的,现在已经被打破了。”[20]

超越新经理和总经理的Astro及其参与者的影响尚不清楚。Astros担心反对投手会感受到一定程度的自由来投掷Astros Hitters。一个前大联盟投手,迈克·鲍森,起诉了天星。他声称,他是一个特别糟糕的郊游是由Astros'作弊引起的,它有效地结束了他的MLB职业生涯。[21]他们的作弊方式的影响也可以在非职业棒球中看到,一些小联盟禁止使用“天空”作为团队名称。[22]无论联赛水平如何,游戏系统的优势一个人自己的团队不是那种戏剧,从长远来看,使得好运动。

讨论问题

  1. 为什么你认为Astros开始使用“黑暗艺术”?

[See videos on the self-serving bias (//www.hiroo-gf.com/video/self-serving-bias.)和框架。(//www.hiroo-gf.com/video/framing)]

  1. Shortly before the Astros began their sign-stealing scheme, the team’s database was hacked by Chris Correa, the rival St. Louis Cardinals’ scouting director. He was later sentenced to 46 months in prison.[23]
    1. How might this transgression by Correa have helped motivate the Astros’ decision to cheat?
    2. 它可以给Astros为自己的作弊合理化吗?您认为合理化是什么?

[看视频上的合理化。(//www.hiroo-gf.com/Glossary/Rationalizations.

  1. 你会在球员上放置多少责任?在经理?在总经理上?在主人上?解释你的推理。
  2. 一位作家问:“鉴于开放的道路,跑车和保证没有执法,你会开车有多快?”[24]然后,他注意到MLB的相对缺乏执法,尽管谣言和关于Astros的抱怨(也许是其他一些俱乐部')非法签名偷窃。将更多的监视,2018年和2019年季后赛中使用的MLB类型的季后赛当看门狗被置于棒球会展期间,已经有所不同?为什么或者为什么不?
  3. Although some MLB players applauded Mike Fiers for coming forward about the scandal, others criticized him for violating baseball’s supposed “code of silence.”[25]
    1. Is that code common in professions or organizations other than MLB (and the Mafia)? Support your answer with examples.
    2. Is it part of the problem? Why or why not?
    3. 如何改革甚至结束?

[查看符合10bet官网亚洲版性偏见的视频//www.hiroo-gf.com/video/conformity-bias.//www.hiroo-gf.com/glossary/conformity-biasand In-group/outgroup.//www.hiroo-gf.com/glossary/in-groupout-group]

  1. 2017年,“运动”报道,小组天星球员对作弊表示疑虑。一位球员走近卡洛斯贝尔特兰,他是该计划的一个环保领袖,以及一个20年的老兵,在他身后的一个名字级职业生涯。Beltran“忽视了[上诉],并蒸了大家。”“如果你是一个年轻的,那个带有天星的年轻人,那家伙说,你会去哪里,”我们要这样做。“你该怎么办?”[26]这一揭示告诉我们倾向于权威的人是什么?[查看有关10bet官网亚洲版权威的推动。//www.hiroo-gf.com/video/obedience-to-authority.;//www.hiroo-gf.com/glossary/obedience-to-authority]
  2. 另一方面,Astros Shortstop Carlos Correa说:“我们没有觉得威胁贝尔特兰人;我们没有威胁。他是我们能拥有的最好的人。他是我们可以拥有的最好的队友。贝尔特兰显然是俱乐部的领导者,但我们都在那里的一切都说了。“[27]这对上一个问题有何影响您的结论?
  3. In a press conference, Astros’ owner Jim Crane said: “Our players should not be punished for these actions. These are a great group of guys who did not receive proper guidance from their leaders.”[28]它似乎确实似乎已经知道该计划一般都知道,那个现场经理Hinch肯定会知道它(并且不喜欢它),但没有做到这一点或者没有什么可以阻止它,并且那个长凳Coach Cora和Team Carlos Beltran队该计划的领导者。这是否定其他玩家吗?为什么或者为什么不?
  4. Former Astro J.D. Davis later explained: “I was a rookie, and I was going up and down the system, and I was fighting for my life. … As a 24-year-old at the time, I was pretty star-struck at the time being around some of the veteran guys and being around the big-league clubhouse and everything. I had never been part of a major-league clubhouse. Maybe what they did was the norm, I have no idea. I had never been in another big-league clubhouse.”[29]这听起来像是行动的符合性偏见,还是只是另一个借口?解释你的推理。
  5. There were clearly Astros players who were uncomfortable with the cheating. Why didn’t they speak out? What about the Astros players, other than Fiers, who left the club knowing of the scheme, but never reported it? Why didn’t they speak out?

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  1. 即使你是肉眼的跑步者,也完全合法地观看了与肉眼的肉眼,即使是捕手信号的Primo视图,也可以用肉眼观看肉眼。尝试检测这些信号并将它们发送给击球手的箱子中的队友是合法的,试图给他一个优势。是使用电子手段来做检测如此接近传统意味着它看起来不那么糟糕吗?解释。
    1. 这种推理界面怎么可能会受到滑坡的影响?

[见渐进主10bet官网亚洲版义的视频。//www.hiroo-gf.com/video/incrementalism.//www.hiroo-gf.com/glossary/incrementalism.]

  1. Why didn’t MLB punish the players who were involved?
    1. 球员是否应该受到惩罚以及经理和总经理?为什么或者为什么不?
    2. 为什么您认为经理人被允许保持世界系列奖金的份额(每次40万美元)?这展会吗?为什么或者为什么不?
  1. 抢劫曼弗雷德是否采取了作出语气或功利主义的方法来调查和惩罚asstos?这是最好的方法吗?解释你的推理。

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  1. In the wake of the scandal, Pete Rose – who is one of the best players in history and was banned from the game because he gambled on baseball – asked for reinstatement.[30]未能惩罚Astros的球员是否为Rose提供了理由?为什么或者为什么不?
  2. Commissioner Manfred refused to strip the Astros of their championship, saying: “Once you go down that road of changing what happens on the field, I just don’t know how you decide where you stop.”[31]你认为应该剥夺他们的冠军冠军吗?解释你的推理。

参考书目

[1]贾里德钻石,'黑暗艺术'和“码扣”:休斯顿天星作弊计划的起源华尔街日报,2月7日,2020年,在https://www.wsj.com/articles/huston-astros-cheating-scheme-dark-arts-codebreaker-11581112994

[2]Id.

[3]汤姆verducci,为什么MLB发出历史惩罚到Astros为签名窃取体育说明了那Jan. 13, 2020, athttps://www.si.com/mlb/2020/01/13/houston-astros-cheating-punishment.

[4]Barry Svrluga&Dave Sheinin,世界刚刚了解了Astros的作弊。在棒球内,这是一个公开的秘密,华盛顿邮报,2月11日,2020年,在https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/mlb/astros-cheating-open-secret/2020/02/11/1830154c-4c41-11a -9b5c-eac5b16dafaa_story.html.

[5]Id.

[6]Id.

[7]Nick Moykin,据报道,国民在世界系列期间知道天空签署盗窃丑闻,WUSA,2月12日,2020年,在https://www.wusa9.com/article/sports/nationals-knew-astros-were-stealing-signs-during-world-series/65-b3ae89ef-58c3-4374-be49-ee591c38384c

[8]罗布雷德,Statement of the Commissioner那Jan. 13, 2020, athttps://www.crawfishboxes.com/2020/1/13/21064270/70/mlb-commissioner-rob-manfreds-full-statement-on-the-theuston-incortization.

[9]Ken Rosenthal & Evan Drellich,The Astros Stole Signs Electronically in 2017—Part of a Much Broader Issue for Major League Baseball,运动,2019年11月12日,在https://theathletic.com/1363451/2019/11/12/the-astros-stole-signs-electronically-in-2017-part-of-a-much-broader-issue-for-major-league-baseball/

[10]苏珊斜坡,A的迈克菲尔斯说他接受了死亡威胁,计划保持天空戒指,旧金山纪事,2月20日,2020年,在https://www.sfhonleicle.com/athletics/article/a-s-mike-fiers-i -ve-dealt-with-death-15071066.php.

[11]曼弗雷德,supra注8。

[12]Erik Boland, “Yankees Won’t Be Returning to the Scene of Astros’ Crime,”Newsday,5月14日,2020年,在https://www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankees/astros-yankees-sign-stign-stialing-scandal-minute-maid-park-1.44641481

[13]Boston Herald Staff, “Calling Foul over MLB Report on Sox Sign-stealing Scandal,”波士顿先驱,4月26日,2020年,在https://www.bostonherald.com/2020/04/26/calling-foul-over-mlb-report-on-sox-sign-tealing-scandal/

[14]Thomas Fox,The Astros Cheating Scandal and Compliance—Part 5: The Whistleblower and the Amnesty托马斯福克斯的FCPA合规性和道德更新,1月21日,2020年,在https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/the-astros-cheating-scandal-and-55519/

[15]Christopher L. Pasper,Players Should Be Punished Too in Baseball’s Sign-Stealing Scandalmsn.com.,1月18日,2020年,在https://www.msn.com/en-us/sports/mlb/players-should-be-punished-too-in-baseball-s-sign-stealing-scandal/ar-BBZ4tCM?fbclid=IwAR0znzAliQdUxJAbpO7v6wMlvL3txqWK6cwIpvmYGSWt3laBhA9hQ-1zI5A

[16]艾伦金,Angles Star Mike Trout撕裂了Astros作弊丑闻的MLB,说他为玩家失去了尊重,CNN.,2月17日,2020年,在https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/17/ou/houston-astros-mike-trout-spt-trnd/index.html.

[17]道尔顿约翰逊,Rob Manfred解释了为什么他没有剥离Astros的世界系列,惩罚玩家NBC运动那Feb. 16, 2020, athttps://www.nbcsports.com/bayarea/他人/ rob-manfred-explains- whe-didnt-strip--astros-world-series-punish-players.

[18]Howard Bryant, “Why the Houston Astros’ Cheating Scandal Could Be Worse for MLB than the Steroid Era,”ESPN.,3月8日,2020年,在https://www.espn.com/mlb/story/_//28841940/Why-Ston-astros-cheating-scandal-worse-mlb-steroid-era.

[19]Doug Glanville,Baseball’s Existential Crisis,纽约时报,1月21日,2020年,在https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/21/opinion/the-astros-cheating.html

[20]Tyler Kepner,休斯顿天星的崛起和突然秋天,纽约时报,2010年1月18日,在https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/18/sports/huston-astros-cheating.html.

[21]南希盔甲,投手Mike Bolsinger说欺骗休斯顿天星改变了他的职业生涯今日美国,2月10日,2020年,在https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/columnist/nancy-armour/2020/02/10/mike-bolsinger-sues-houston-astros-says-cheating-changed-his-career/4712164002/

[22]Tim Daniels,加利福尼亚州的小联盟在欺骗丑闻后禁止天星作为团队名称,blacherreport.,2月15日,2020年,在https://blacherreport.com/articles/2876498-california-little-leagues-ban-astros-as-team-name-after-cheating-scandal.

[23]亚当•威尔斯Chris Correa判处46个月的攻击Astros的计算机系统blacherreport.com.那July 18, 2016, athttps://bleacherreport.com/articles/2652751-chris-correa-sentenced-to-46-months-for-hacking-astros-computer-system

[24]Gene Laques,受伤的缔约方,挑衅的罪行和污染的冠军:休斯顿天星的签署丑闻检查所有方框今日美国那Jan. 15, 2020, athttps://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/mlb/columnist/gabe-lacques/2020/01/15/ho -lacks-cheating-scandal-mlb/4465982002/

[25]苏珊斜坡,A的迈克菲尔斯说他接受了死亡威胁,计划保持天空戒指,旧金山纪事,2月20日,2020年,在https://www.sfhonleicle.com/athletics/article/a-s-mike-fiers-i -ve-dealt-with-death-15071066.php.

[26]Rosenthal & Drellich,supra笔记 __。

[27]James Crabtree-Hannigan,Carlos Correa Denies Astros Were Intimidated by Carlos Beltran体育新闻,2月13日,2020年,在https://www.sportingnews.com/us/mlb/news/carlos-correa-denies-astros-were-intimidated-by-carlos-beltran/1qids459hddeo1k53f8nabl8z6

[28]斯科特戴维斯,Astros表示,他们的作弊计划“没有影响游戏”和玩家在克林特斯特比新闻发布会上不应持责任,商业内幕Feb. 13, 2020, athttps://www.businessinsider.com/jim-crane-astros-cheating-didnt-impact-game-press-conference-2020-2

[29]Bob Nightengale,Former Astros Outfielders J.D. Davis, Jake Marisnick Apologize for Their Roles in the Sign-stealing Scandal,今日美国那Feb. 14, 2020, athttps://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/mlb/columnist/bob-nightegale/2020/02/14/14/former-astros-outfielder-jd-davis-ashamamed-sign-stialing/4759911002/

[30]Randy Miller,皮特玫瑰感觉Astros'欺骗比他的赌注更糟糕,问题玩家离开'苏格兰人'nj.com.https://www.nj.com/yankees/2020/01/pete-rose-feels-astros-cheating-worse-than-gambling-questions-players-getting-off-oft-scot-free.html.

[31]约翰珀罗特,罗马曼弗雷德不会忍受对休斯顿天星的报复,2月17日,2020年,在https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnperrotto/2020/02/17/rob-manfred-wont-tolerate-retaliation-against-houston-astros/#10a4a13f3b67

Teaching Notes

该视频介绍了称为道德变异的行为伦理偏见。十博官网app下载道德变异是我们以掩盖道德信仰和承诺的方式沟通,或者根本不发道道德情感。

For teaching moral myopia and moral muteness, instructors can often tie in current events or scandals that likely involved moral myopia and moral muteness on the part of a number of people. Examples of moral myopia and moral muteness that involve illegal behavior are often some of the most dramatic. However, it is important to emphasize that moral myopia and moral muteness do not always lead to criminal behavior, and they are not limited to situations that involve breaking the law.

此视频是三维视频道德三部曲包的一部分。道德三部曲中的三个视10bet官网亚洲版频 -道德近视Moral Muteness(这个视频),和Moral Imagination- 旨在一起使用。道德近视和道德变异往往相互加强,同时突破道德近视和道德变异可以使人们能够发展道德想象力。

Moral myopia and moral muteness reinforce the concepts covered in the documentary在它中获胜:杰克阿布拉曼夫故事及其伴随的短视频。10bet官网亚洲版这些视频是关10bet官网亚洲版于前游说杰克阿布拉莫姆的,他被判犯有许多罪行和在联邦监狱的时间。在纪录片中,阿布拉莫莫夫断言,他没有意识到他涉及他犯下罪行时的非常违法和不道德的游说活动,表明一种严重的道德近视。他还指出,他没有与可能为他提供道德律师,表明道德变异的人讨论这些活动。

To learn about the types of rationalizations that support moral myopia and moral muteness, watch符合偏见服从权威Self-serving Bias, 和Tangible & Abstract

与减轻道德近视和道德变异和令人鼓舞的道德想象有关的想法非常同样与玛丽C.外邦人创造的价值观(GVV)方法同步。看着GVV.视频系列用于这种方法的固体介绍。访问GVV网站以获取更多案例研究和读数。Finette Drumwright教授和一些学生撰写了四个GVV案例研究,帮助本科生承认道德近视和道德变异,并帮助他们了解如何向其价值观和锻炼道德想象(见“兼职工作- 时间挑战,“市场研究欺骗”,“与附属的字符串”的学生特权“和”在线身份(a)&(b)“)。

本页的案例研究,“全面披露:操纵捐助者”,当实习生在误导性情况下向非营利组织提供大礼物时,探讨道德变异的一个例子。为案例研究说明道德近视,见“作弊:亚特兰大的学校丑闻”,教师和管理员调整努力拯救他们学校的学生的考试成绩。

Terms defined in our ethics glossary that are related to the video and case studies include: conformity bias, diffusion of responsibility, integrity, moral imagination, moral muteness, moral myopia, and obedience to authority.

道德三部曲中的三种行十博官网app下载为伦理概念以及在发表的文章中描述和记录了在其上发表的文章中描述和记录了许多合理化的合理化概念广告杂志由Minette Drumwright和Patrick Murphy(参见其他资源)。

十博官网app下载行为道德吸引了行为心理学,认知科学,进化生物学和相关学科,以确定人们如何以及为什么人们做出他们所做的道德和不道德的决定。很多行为道十博官网app下载德研究都解决了为什么好人做坏事的问题。许多行为伦十博官网app下载理概念在探索中探讨Concepts Unwrapped以及视频案例研究在它中获胜:杰克阿布拉莫夫的故事。任何观看这些视频的所有(甚至好的部分)的人都将对行为伦理造成坚实的介绍。十博官网app下载10bet官网亚洲版

Additional Resources

学术用法:

Bird, Frederick B., and James A. Waters. 1989. “The Moral Muteness Of Managers.”California Management Review32(1):73-88。

鼓手,迷你e.和Patrick E. Murphy。2004年。“广告从业者如何观察道德:道德变异,道德近视和道德想象。”广告杂志33 (2): 7-24.

外邦人,玛丽C. 2010。“Keeping Your Colleagues Honest: How to Challenge Unethical Behavior at Work—And Prevail.”哈佛商业评论88 (3): 114-117.

外邦人,玛丽C. 2010。给价值观发言: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What’s Right。纽黑文,CT:耶鲁大学出版社。

Prentice, Robert. 2004. “Teaching Ethics, Heuristics And Biases.”Journal Of Business Ethics Education1 (1): 57-74.

Werhane,Patricia H. 1999。道德想象与管理决策。纽约:牛津大学出版社。

案件:

看到给价值观发言(GVV.) Curriculum for cases that provide evidence of Moral Myopia and Moral Muteness. All GVV curriculum materials are free to instructors and students here:

特别是看看GVV案例由Minette E. Drumwright和她的学生撰写,“兼职工作,具有全职挑战”,“市场研究欺骗”,“与串的学生特权”,“和”在线身份(A)&(B)“。

丑闻中的新闻故事:

Barrett, Paul M. 2014. “The Scandal Bowl: Tar Heels Football, Academic Fraud, and Implicit Racism。“Businessweek,1月2日。

Belson, Ken. 2012. “Sandusky的审判始于图形证词。“纽约时报,6月11日。

Boren, Cindy. 2013. “Lance Armstrong否认兴奋剂指控的简史。“华盛顿邮报那January 14.

美联社。2013年。“多年来,Lance Armstrong倾向于拒绝。”Huffington Post,1月16日。

来自伦理的最新教学资源未包装是一篇文章,由Cara Biasucci十博体育投注官网和Robert Prentice撰写,描述了行为道德的基础知识,推出了视频和支持材料以及教学例子,并包含了用于改善道德的道德的疗效的数据十博官网app下载10bet官网亚洲版跨学科的教育学。它发表在中国商业法和道德教育学杂志(Vol.1,2018年8月),可以在这里下载:“教学行为道德(使用十博官网app下载“伦理展开”视频和教育材料)十博体育投注官网10bet官网亚洲版。”

有关教学行为道德的更多资源,道德展开作家夹克·普朗特,罗伯特·十博官网app下载普雷斯特和Cara Biasucci撰写的一篇文章介绍了行为道德十博体育投注官网的关键概念,以及有效的道德教学的方法 - 包括样本课堂分配。文章发表在决策科学创新教育杂志,可以在这里下载:“十博官网app下载行为伦理与教学道德决策。“

罗伯特Prentice的详细文章,具有广泛的教学行为道德资源,发表于此十博官网app下载法律研究教育杂志,可以在这里下载:“教学行为道德十博官网app下载。“

罗伯特·普伦蒂斯的一篇文章讨论了行为道德如何改善人类决策的伦理性,发表在十博官网app下载Notre Dame法律,道德与公共政策,可以在此处下载:“Behavioral Ethics: Can It Help Lawyers (And Others) Be their Best Selves?

关于教学行为道德的日期但仍然可维修的介绍性文章可以通过谷歌学者通过搜索:Prentice,Robert A. 2004.“教学伦理,十博官网app下载启发式和偏见”。Journal of Business Ethics Education1 (1): 57-74.

叙事的成绩单

书面和叙述

Minette Drumwright,ph.d.,m.b.a.
广告与公共关系系
Moody College of Communication
奥斯汀德克萨斯大学

“当人们没有看到道德问题时,我们知道问题。当人们深入了解某些问题时,也存在问题,但他们找到了一些不讲述它的理由的方法。学者弗雷德里克鸟和詹姆斯沃特人认为这是“道德变异”。道德变异是人们要么没有语音道德情绪,或者他们以掩盖道德信仰和承诺的方式沟通。

在研究广告代理商的人员的研究中,帕特里克墨菲和我发现道德变异得到了许多合理化的支持,我们认为这些合理化更加适用于业务。例如,一个共同的合理化是道德对业务不利。随着一个人说:“如果你提出道德,人们会认为你没有业务化。”他们说,“如果你要这样说,请去教堂。”

t的事实he matter is, when push comes to shove, many people would prefer to win than to be ethical, but this is often a short-term approach that can actually hurt both the individual and the organization in the long term.

道德变异可以得到另一种合理化的支持,涉及竞争目标 - 似乎是一个胜过道德问题的更高良好的东西。但通常,对其他目标的分析是肤浅的。例如,合理化“客户端始终是正确的”可以导致一个-O-o-o-holic综合症,您不会告诉您的客户端,他们不想听到道德问题。值得信赖的商业顾问和o-o-holic存在很大差异。值得信赖的商业顾问有时必须给出不舒服的建议,以便做好工作。请o-holics可能觉得他们在短期内完成工作,但从长远来看,研究表明,不同类型的关系更为富有成效,更有利可图。

Self-interest is a particularly compelling rationalization that can mute moral concerns, and rationalizations related to self-interest can take many forms, such as “I don’t want to rock the boat because I could make some enemies.” “I need to be seen as a team player rather than a tattle tale.” “I don’t want to mess with a winning formula.” Often rationalizations such as these frame self-interest in short-term rather than long-term ways.

One way to avoid moral muteness, obviously, is to make a habit of talking about issues with people whom we trust. When we raise concern, we can position ourselves as someone who is trying to help the organization, to protect it from problems, rather than as someone who is tying to slap hands or judge. Often making persuasive arguments by illustrating the potential consequences for individuals and for the organization can be helpful. And it is important to view our role as that of a trusted business advisor — an indispensable professional in any organization.”

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