Deontology

Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. Don’t steal. Don’t cheat.”

Deontology is simple to apply. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. This approach tends to fit well with our natural intuition about what is or isn’t ethical.

与结果中的结果不同,判断其结果的行为,故事不需要权衡情况的成本和益处。这避免了主观性和不确定性,因为您只需遵循设置规则。

尽管它的优势,刚性之后的故事可以产生许多人发现不可接受的结果。例如,假设您是一个软件工程师,并了解核导弹即将推出可能正在开始战争。您可以攻击网络并取消启动,但它是针对您的专业道德准则,不得在未经许可的情况下闯入任何软件系统。而且,这是一种撒谎和作弊的形式。故事建议不要违反这一规则。然而,在让导弹发射中,成千上万的人会死。

So, following the rules makes deontology easy to apply. But it also means disregarding the possible consequences of our actions when determining what is right and what is wrong.

Case Study

缅甸琥珀

一种mber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. This yellow to reddish-brown translucent material has been used in a number of ways, including to make jewelry, in Egyptian burials, and in the healing arts. Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics.

One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. The mining of these amber specimens in Myanmar is the center of many legitimate and blackmarket sales to university researchers and private collectors alike. Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber.

缅甸是一个小东南亚国家,含有约130个不同的民族,政府认可。没有官方宗教宗教,但缅甸政府有利于大多数佛教佛教人口。这种偏袒创造了族裔和宗教冲突,从而产生了政府执法的歧视。例如,政府使基督教和伊斯兰群体难以获得修理或建立新的敬拜场所的许可。克钦独立军,包括居住在北部克钦和缅甸周边地区的少数民族,并与缅甸政府恢复少数民族权利的武装冲突。

For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. However, in 2017 the Myanmar government dropped leaflets from helicopters informing the population in northern Kachin that civilians and Kachin militants who remain in the region will be considered hostile opposition to the government military forces. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war.

虽然一些研究人员和大学感到肯定应该避免这样的琥珀购买,但他们的失败使许多私人收藏家能够从公众中删除收集或收取研究人员的收费。

Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. Myanmar classifies amber as a gemstone, not a fossil, so it can be legally removed from the country, unlike fossils that have restrictions on removal.

讨论问题

1.如果您是大学科学家,您如何决定您是否为您从缅甸购买琥珀色的道德?

a. If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? What moral principles would you take into account?

b. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like? What facts would you weigh in making the decision?

2. In deciding whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar, do you need to guard against the self-serving bias unduly affecting your decision? If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact?

3. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? Which ones?

4.您是否意识到世界各地的可比情境,希望成为道德买家的个人和公司应该是类似的警惕,因为知道他们的购买价格可能会帮助卖方的糟糕行为?这是考虑到买家是否应考虑到这一点?它总是考虑买家是否应考虑到?

5.科学家们考虑的道德呢trading in Myanmar amber learn from the debate over “conflict minerals” in Africa?

参考书目

Gammon, Katharine, “The Human Cost of Amber,”The Atlantic那一种ug. 2, 2019.https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/

Grimaldi, David, “Amber,”Current Biology Magazinehttps://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf

Greshko, Michael, “Ancient Bird Foot Found in Amber Has Bizarrely Long Toes,”National Geographic那July 11, 2019.https://www.nationationalgographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unustaly--long-toes//

Lawton, Graham, “Blood Amber: The Exquisite Trove of Fossils Fueling War in Myanmar,”NewScientist那May 1, 2019.https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/

Nelson, Alexandrea, “The Materiality of Morality: Conflict Minerals,”Utah Law Review,2014:1,p。219(2014)。https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr

Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,”Science那May 23, 2019.https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield

Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018.https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/

邢,Linda等,“一只带有原始羽毛的羽毛恐龙尾巴被困在中白垩纪的琥珀色”,“Current Biology那26: 24, pl. 3352 (Dec. 2016).https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub

“Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,”财务职位,2017年1月26日。https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north

“It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,”NewScientist那May 1, 2019.https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/

Head Injuries & American Football

一种merican football is a rough and dangerous game. “Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.”[1]玩家遭受瘀伤,撕裂,撕裂的肌肉,脱臼肩,撕裂的膝盖韧带,破碎的骨骼,内部器官损伤,偶尔,甚至瘫痪。足球规则故意在人类之间创造高速碰撞,使得这种伤害不可避免地和运动有争议。关于脑伤害的新知识导致许多人称足球不道德[2]并倡导其废除。[3]

一种traumatic brain injury (TBI)is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4]一种concussionis a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage.[5]一种lthough concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening.Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.”[6]Repetitive head impacts (RHIs)can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion.[7]

If only one thing is clear about the current science surroundingsports-related concussions (SRCs)and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. The field is surprisingly new. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE.[8]Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.[9]

Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. These studies are broken down by football league level:

National Football League (NFL):

  • 超过两个常规季节(2012-2014),NFL球员遭受了4,384次伤害,其中包括301个脑震荡。这一统计数据从2002 - 2007年增加了61%,也许反映了提高认识和报告。[10]
  • 在一项关于14,000名NFL球员的研究中,研究人员发现,即使是多年来,也可以在多年内造成脑震荡的头部影响,导致CTE和过早死亡。演奏24场比赛的NFL球员增加了16%的早产的可能性。[11]
  • 一种2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled.[12]
  • 一种nother study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group.[13]
  • Of 111 NFL players whose brains were donated for one study, 110 were diagnosed with CTE.[14]
  • 一种2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS).[15]
  • Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression,[16]dementia-related syndromes,[17]Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS),[18]and erectile dysfunction.[19]

大学和高中:

  • 一种study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment.[20]
  • 一种fter a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with.[21]
  • High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions.[22]
  • 2017年研究发现了21%的已故高中足球运动员捐赠大脑的CTE。[23]
  • 随着时间的推移,有证据表明,高中足球运动员遭受的轻微脑震荡甚至可能会导致严重后果。[24]
  • 足球事业比任何其他嗨脑震荡gh school sport,[25]这些脑震荡可能导致死亡。[26]

青年联赛(14岁以下):

  • Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games.[27]
  • Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player.[28]
  • 一种ccording to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”[29]
  • 对前NFL球员的一项研究发现,与12岁以上12岁之前开始踢足球的人往往与12岁以后开始的人更大的妇女认知障碍。[30]

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THE OTHER SIDE OF THE STORY

Given the results of the studies above, it is not surprising that there has been a strong outcry against football. However, the science in this area is truly not settled. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.”[31]目前没有“金标准”诊断脑震荡。[32]该地区的许多研究人员最近发表了一篇文章,说:

与常见感知相反,CTE的临床综合征尚未完全定义。它的流行率未知,神经病理学诊断标准不仅仅是初步初步。我们对产生神经功能障碍或区分患病的病理程度或分布病理学的程度或分布的理解不完全,并且在显然无症状的个体中报告了神经病理学变化。“[33]

Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”[34]

Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes.[35]Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]

Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. Again, these studies are broken down by league level:

NFL.

  • 一种2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league.[37]
  • 在50岁以下的35名前NFL球员的另一个研究在职业生涯中持续了多个脑震荡,在职业生涯的长度,脑震荡的数量和他们生活中的认知功能水平之间没有重大关联。[38]
  • 一项研究发现,在1987年罢工期间,职业NFL球员和NFL替代玩家之间的所有导致死亡人员之间没有统计学意义。[39]
  • 一种2007 study found that retired NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the general population.[40]

大学和高中

  • Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range.[41]
  • 对3,904名威斯康星州男子的研究发现,在高中踢足球与人生后的认知障碍或抑郁症之间没有显着的有害关系。[42]
  • 降低实践中的处理在高中球员之间的整体脑震荡数量减少,即使游戏中的脑震荡数量略微上升。并且脑震荡复发已经减少,最有可能通过协议引导,以便恢复播放。[43]
  • One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”[44]

青年联赛(14岁以下)

  • 尽管他们对脑震荡的易感性提高了敏感性,但青年足球运动员很少维持脑震荡,因为它们比旧球员更轻,而且与较老球员的力量较轻。[45]
  • 在一项研究中,使用新设计的足球头盔和安全的解决技术,为整个赛季的20名中学老年球员消除了脑脑脑脑力。[46]

Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground.[47]还有证据表明,NFL试图影响其资助的一些研究的结果。[48]In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results.[49]

NFL采取了其他具体步骤来应对争议。它支付了超过7.5亿美元来解决前球员的民事诉讼。[50]The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51]and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field.[52]

On the other hand, while football helmets can prevent fractured skulls, they will likely never be able to prevent concussions.[53]Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions,[54]但是神经科学家Julie STAMM说:“没有头盔将是令人震惊的,因为大脑仍然在头骨内移动。出于同样的原因,单独的头盔不会阻止CTE。“[55]Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions.[56]戈德堡教授认为“电动汽车idence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]

Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain.[58]Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence.[59]一种t the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries.

讨论问题

General Discussion Questions

  1. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Utilitarian? Deontological? Explain why and how using that approach might play out.
  2. 如果您对不断支持和/或踢足球的问题进行系统的道德分析,您是否会对不同联盟类别和年龄组得到不同的结果?解释。是否有一种案例在这些联赛中的任何一个联赛中是“合理的伤害”?为什么或者为什么不?
  3. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. Five million cribs had been sold. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”
    1. 我们如何回答这个问题?什么因素进入等式的每一侧?
    2. 一种re the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? Discuss your reasoning.
    3. 这是一个道德问题吗?政策问题?政治问题?所有这三个?解释。
  4. 陈还指出了科学的不确定性,注意到:“现在,这些复杂性对未来的疾病作出了某些问题。如果次要震动是c.t.e的原因,则影响太多了多少?Tau Clumps如何与临床综合征有关 - DO损伤是否完全解释了情绪和记忆问题?(可能不是;其他种类的脑异常,如炎症或从头部伤害的神经布线损坏,可能发挥作用。)“[60]陈进一步指出,可能解决这些问题的数十年的长期研究将是非常昂贵的,并且没有这样的研究是在地平线上进行的。[61]鉴于这种持续的不确定性,我们如何在我们生活在等级和生计的一侧来改革甚至废除足球?
    1. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods? Why or why not?
  5. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. Others suggest that the uncertainty favors taking actions now rather than waiting until too much damage is done, as happened with tobacco.[62]体育社会学家Mattresca辩称:“随着体育管理人员和研究人员讨论预防性要求更多的确凿证据,无数的运动员暴露于反复的脑子影响,而没有未来知识从待教科学调查中获得的未来知识的益处。”[63]Professor Daniel Goldberg claims that the Precautionary Principle[64]demands that we prevent youngsters from playing football even if the evidence that it will cause serious damage to their brains is not yet clearly established:[65]“[W]aiting for robust evidence of causality is historically a very poor guideline for maximizing population health.”[66]Other public health experts similarly argue that the evidence of risk is sufficiently high to meet both parts of OSHA’s test for “significant risk of material impairment of health” that justifies government intervention.[67]面对医学不确定性,这辩论的适当方法是什么?
    1. 证据负担在哪里?
    2. Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why?
    3. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? Explain.
  6. 关于体育脑震荡,奥巴马总统表示:“我们必须改变一种文化,说'你吮吸它,通过脑伤来吮吸它......。[报告脑震荡]不会让你变得薄弱,这意味着你很强大。“另一方面,特朗普总统表示,规则变更削弱头部伤害是“破坏了比赛”。[68]一种re politics, as well as ethics, involved in this debate? Discuss your reasoning.
  7. One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. Riding a bicycle carries risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”[69]Do you find this argument persuasive? Why or why not?
    1. 您的意见是由于上面引用的科学家是密歇根州立大学足球队的神经科学家?
  8. Some argue against paternalism and in favor of individual choice, believing that adults (at least) should be able to choose to engage in boxing (and presumably to play football) despite its potentially adverse consequences for brain health.[70]Using John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle,[71]others argue that the individualists overlook the damage that such a choice by a football player might have on others. For example, on the people the player might later beat up in a rage caused by brain deterioration, on the burden on caregivers of caring for a dementia-ridden patient, or the sorrow a premature death might cause relatives, and the burden on society caused by high medical expenses to take care of an impaired ex-player.[72]Where do you stand on the paternalism vs. individual choice debate? Support your position with data and facts.

讨论问题on the NFL

  1. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football?[73]Can these contradictory positions be reconciled? Explain.
    1. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? Explain.
  2. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others.[74]那么,为什么不应该做同样的事情?
  3. 史蒂夫·杏仁辩称,“一个民用休闲课......为自己的娱乐而创造了一个人的娱乐,一个种姓的战士太大,强大,快速地演奏孩子的游戏而不会互相严重伤害彼此。”[75]Do you think this a moral issue? Why or why not?
    1. 同理,应该th的粉丝e game be ashamed of themselves? Why or why not?
  4. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions.[76]Does this sound like a viable solution to you? Explain your reasoning.
    1. The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future.[77]Football’s rules have been changed frequently over the years, so why do you think this is different? Or is it?
  5. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer.[78]In light of very strong evidence associating football violence with brain injuries, the NFL’s goal has simply been to “manufacture doubt” and thereby delay regulation.[79]你认为这是真的吗?为什么或者为什么不?你发现它是一个道德问题吗?解释。
  6. 非裔美国人占美国人口的12.6%,但占NFL名单的68%。因此,它们不成比例地暴露于从游戏中产生的脑震荡和其他伤害。这导致了一些建议NFL是现代化的种植园。[80]一种nd that concussions present not just a public health issue but also a social justice issue.[81]一种re these fair criticisms? Discuss your reasoning.
    1. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well? Explain.
    2. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? Why or why not?
  7. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win.[82]What is your opinion?
    1. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions?

讨论问题on High Schools & Colleges

  1. In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. They’re all in good shape. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. No, it’s not crazy because we need to continue and budget and run money through the state of Oklahoma.”[83]一位评论员引用了这一评论,因为剧烈的证据表明“他对社会福利的商业和储存兴趣的最高感兴趣,遗憾的是变得无法印记为美国文化的道德纤维。”[84]Do you agree? Why or why not?
    1. Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? Explain.
  2. Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. Do you agree?[85]
    1. 这是足够的吗?解释。
    2. 一种re college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? Support your position with data and facts.
  3. Statistician Ted Tatos[86]cites the California Supreme Court inUniversity of California v. Rosen作为裁决“[S]提度相对脆弱,依赖于他们的高校安全环境。大学的能力卓越的能力在他们赞助或设施控制的活动方面提供安全性。“[87]Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? How does it impact your position on the debate about concussions in football?

关于青年联赛的讨论问题(14岁以下)

  1. 一位公共卫生教授表示,让青少年前播放足球是“对儿童福利的道德责任造成道德责任”。[88]Do you agree, or is this getting a little hysterical? Explain.
  2. Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development.[89]It helps them learn to assess risks, for example. Based on such findings, philosopher John Russell has argued that children should be allowed to play tackle football.[90]He believes in the distinctive value of physically “self-affirming” behavior which he argues is available mainly in childhood. Russell states: “Dangerous sport in its best exemplars, particularly those in which substantial bodily danger is an immediate and ever-present risk, represents an opportunity for confronting and pressing beyond certain apparent limits of personal, and indeed human, physical and psychological capacities in ways not afforded by other normally available human activities.”[91]On the other hand, Philosopher Patrick Findler argues that children may not be able to fully realize the dangers they face when playing football, and that other, less dangerous activities, can provide the benefits Russell desires.[92]你找到更有说服力的论点,和why?
  3. Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”[93]Is that risk level different than it would be for older players? Explain.
  4. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Why or why not?

参考书目

[1]Ingfei Chen,Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?,The New Yorker,2月1日,2020年。

[2]Steve Almond,看超级碗是不道德的吗?New York Times,2014年1月24日;Pamela R.水手,个人犯规:评估足球的道德地位,Journal of the Philosophy of Sport那42(2): 269-286 (2015).

[3]戴夫布莱,一种merican Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished,守护者(UK), Jan. 4, 2016.

[4]Center for Disease Control, athttps://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html.

[5]Center for Disease Control, athttps://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html

[6]Mayo Clinic, athttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921

[7]朱利安E. Bailes等。,Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review神经外科杂志那119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken,慢性创伤性脑病的研究差距和争议:综述贾马神经病学74(10):1255-1262(2017);Philip H. Montenigro等。,累积头部冲击暴露预测前生命抑郁,冷漠,行政功能障碍和前高中和大学球员的认知障碍,Journal of Neurotraumua34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al.,运动的神经病理学一种cta Neuropathologica那127: 29-51 (2014).

[8]Jeanne Marie Laskas,Concussion(2015).Bennet I. Omalu et al,Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player,Neurosurgery那57: 128-134 (2005);

[9]一种nn McKee et al.,The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,Brain Pathology,25:350-364(2015)。

[10]David W. Lawrence et al.,Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2021-2014,骨科杂志那2015:3(5):2325967115583653.

[11]Justin Ehrlich等,Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data,F1000Research 2019那8:2022.看also一种nn C. McKee et al.,The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,Brain那136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players).

[12]Jesse Mez等人,Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy,神经病学史,2019;DOI:10.1002 / ANA.25611。

[13]Michael L. Alosco等。,Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players一种lzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring那7:33-40 (2017)

[14]Jesse Mez等人,Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American FootballJAMA,318(4):360-370(2017)。

[15]Everett J. Lehman等人。Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players,Neurology那79(19): 1970-1974 (2012).

[16]Kevin M. Guskiewicz等。,Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players,Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure,39(6):903-909(2007)。

[17]Kevin M. Guskiewicz等。,一种ssociation between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football PlayersNeurosurgery57(4): 719-726 (2005).

[18]欧内斯特L. Abel,足球增加了Lou Gehrig病的风险,肌营养的外侧硬化,Perceptual Motor Skills那104(3): 1251-1254 (20007).

[19]Rachel Grashow et al.,一种ssociation of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players,贾马神经病学那2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664.

[20]Philip H. Montenigro等。,累积头部冲击暴露预测前生命抑郁,冷漠,行政功能障碍和前高中和大学球员的认知障碍,Journal of Neurotraumua34(2) (2017).

[21]一种dnan A. Hirad,一种Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion,Science Advances5(8), Aug. 2019.

[22]Steven Senne,Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds,Columbus Dispatch那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds

[23]Steven Senne,Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds,Columbus Dispatch那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds

[24]Michael W. Collins等人,一种dolescent SportsConcussion,Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America,19(2):247-269(2008);标记R. Lovell等,Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes,神经外科杂志那98(2): 296-301 (2003).

[25]杰奎琳霍华德,这些高中体育有最高的脑震荡率,CNN那Oct. 15, 2019, athttps://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html

[26]James P. Kelly et al.,Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic OutcomeJAMA,266(20):2867-2869(1991)。

[27]Bryan R. Cobb et al.,青年足球头部影响曝光:小学9-12岁及实践结构的影响,生物医学工程史册那41: 2463-2473 (2013).

[28]Eamon T. Campolettano et al.,开发使用Heal Linear和Royation Acceleration的青年人口的脑震荡风险功能,生物医学工程史册,48(1):92 DOI:10.1007 / S10439-019-02382-2。

[29]朱莉麦克,What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries,mlive.com.那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html(quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm).

[30]Julie M. Stamm et al.,一种ge of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players,Neurology,84(11):1114-1120(2015年)。

[31]Christie Aschwanden,Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience,Wired.com.那Oct. 2, 2019.

[32]Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald,影响力:批判性检查运动的“脑震荡危机”inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019).

[33]William Stewart et al.,Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE,Lancet Neurology那18:231-232 (2019).

[34]Munro Cullum,足球对大脑不好吗?我们对脑震荡的长期影响知之甚少,Statnews那Sept.27, 2019.

[35]Munro Cullum,足球对大脑不好吗?我们对脑震荡的长期影响知之甚少,Statnews那Sept.27, 2019.

[36]Munro Cullum,足球对大脑不好吗?我们对脑震荡的长期影响知之甚少,Statnews那Sept.27, 2019.

[37]Everett J. Lehman等人。Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons,一种merican Journal of Sports Medicine那44(10): 2486-2491 (2016).

[38]Jesse Mez等人,Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy,神经病学史,2019;DOI:10.1002 / ANA.25611。

[39]一种theendar S. Venkataramani et al,一种ssociation Between Playing American Football and Long-term MortalityJAMA,319(8):800-806(2018)。

[40]Thomas L. Schwenk,Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football PlayersMedicine & Science in Sports & Leisure39(4):599-605 92007)(但发现当与疼痛困难时,睡眠和社会关系的问题经常遵循)。

[41]一种shwin L. Rao et al.,在全国大学体育(NCAA) Ath自杀letes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database,Sports Health7(5): 452-457 (2015).

[42]同名K. deshpande等,一种ssociation of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life,贾马神经病学那74(8): 909-918 (2017).

[43]Zachary Y.Kerr等人,Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports,Pediatrics144(5): e20192190.

[44]朱莉麦克,What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries,mlive.com.那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html(quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm).

[45]Eamon T. Campolettano et al.,开发使用Heal Linear和Royation Acceleration的青年人口的脑震荡风险功能,生物医学工程史册,48(1):92 DOI:10.1007 / S10439-019-02382-2。

[46]罗伯特F. Heary等人。Is Youth Football Safe? An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data,Neurosurgery(Jan. 2020),available athttps://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563。

[47]Ingfei Chen,Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?,The New Yorker,2月1日,2020年。

[48]Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg,Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI,Injury Prevention那athttps://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full;Ingfei Chen,Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?,The New Yorker那Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru,League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth(2013)。

[49]Lisa Bero,行业赞助和研究结果:Cochrane评论JAMA Internal Medicine,173(7):580-581(2013)。

[50]肯格森,Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. Concussion SuitNew York Times那一种pril 22, 2015.

[51]Kevin Seifer,Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? And How Will It Change in 2019?ESPN那一种ug. 19, 2019, athttps://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019

[52]Janine Armstrong,NFL肠震动协议解释:它是如何工作的?Sportcasting那Oct. 13, 2019, athttps://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explate-how-does-it-work/

[53]Christie Aschwanden,Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience,Wired.com.那Oct. 2, 2019.

[54]Marc Siegel,Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools,小山那一种ug. 19, 2019.

[55]朱莉麦克,What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries,mlive.com.那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html(quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm).

[56]Christie Aschwanden,Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience,Wired.com.那Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad).

57 Daniel Goldberg,What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(MattResca&Mary McDonald Eds,2020)。

[58]Daniel Engber,脑震荡谎言,石板那Dec. 21, 2015, athttps://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html;凯文洛曼诺,记者将球放在大脑震荡/ CTE故事上,healthnewsreview.org.那Jan. 19, 2018, athttps://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/;

[59]Matt Ventresca,The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain InjuryCommunication & Sport,7(2):135-156(2019年)。

[60]Ingfei Chen,Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?,The New Yorker,2月1日,2020年。

[61]Ingfei Chen,Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?,The New Yorker,2月1日,2020年。

[62]Matt Ventresca,The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain InjuryCommunication & Sport,7(2):135-156(2019年)。

[63]Matt Ventresca,The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain InjuryCommunication & Sport,7(2):135-156(2019年)。

[64]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/precauty_principle.

[65]Daniel Goldberg,What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(MattResca&Mary McDonald Eds,2020)。

[66]Daniel Goldberg,Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis法律医学杂志,34:157-191(2013)。

[67]Adam M. Finkel&Kevin F. Bieniek,公共贺道科学如何评估证据,人类和生态风险评估:国际期刊那25(3): 564-589 (2019).

[68]Bill Pennington,Trump Says N.F.L. Is Getting Soft. Players Hit Back,New York Times那Sept. 26, 2017.

[69]朱莉麦克,父母需要了解足球,康复和头部伤害,mlive.com.那Nov. 24, 2019, athttps://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html(引用神经科学专家大卫考夫曼)。

[70]Nicholas Dixon,Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism,Social Theory and Practice那27(2): 323-344 (2001).

[71]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle

[72]Daniel Goldberg,Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis法律医学杂志,34:157-191(2013)。Pamela R.水手,Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of FootballJournal of the Philosophy of Sport那42(2): 269-286 (2015).

[73]戴夫布莱,一种merican Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished,守护者(UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians.

[74]戴夫布莱,一种merican Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished,守护者(UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”

[75]Steve Almond,看超级碗是不道德的吗?New York Times那Jan. 24, 2014.

[76]戴夫布莱,一种merican Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished,守护者(英国),2016年1月4日。Bry认为这永远不会发生。

[77]戴夫布莱,一种merican Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished,守护者(UK), Jan. 4, 2016 (quoting CBS News quoting, in turn, Dr. John York).

[78]大卫吉,怀疑是他们的产品:行业对科学的攻击如何威胁您的健康Journal of Public Health Policy那29(4): 474-479 (2008)

[79]Peter Benson,大足球:企业社会责任与美国最受欢迎的运动伤害的文化和颜色,Journal of Sport and Social Issues,41(4):307-334(2017年);Daniel Goldberg,What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al.,N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry,New York Times2016年3月24日。

[80]一种nthony E. Prior,周日的奴隶一面(2006).

[81]Peter Benson,大足球:企业社会责任与美国最受欢迎的运动伤害的文化和颜色,Journal of Sport and Social Issues那41(4): 307-334 (2017). Alan Schwarz et al.,N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry,New York Times2016年3月24日。

[82]斯蒂芬·汉森,‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians,Journal of the Philosophy of Sport那45(3): 215-227 (2018).

[83]Des Bieler,Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,”Washington Post那一种pril 7, 2020, athttps://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/看alsoMichael Cunningham,Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts,一种tlanta Journal-Constitution那May 22, 2020.

[84]Ted Tatos,Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives美国前景那May 20, 2020.

[85]Michael Cunningham,Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts,一种tlanta Journal-Constitution那May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma).

[86]Ted Tatos,Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives美国前景那May 20, 2020.

[87]4 Cal. 5th607 (2018).

[88]Kathleen Bachynski,Youth Football is a Moral Abdication,The Atlantic,2月1日,2020年。

[89]Mariana Brussoni et al.,危险的游戏和儿童安全:平衡最佳儿童发展的优先事项,International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,9:3134-3148 (2012).

[90]J.S. Russell,儿童和危险运动和娱乐Journal of the Philosophy of Sport那34: 176-193 (2007).

[91]J.S. Russell,The Value of Dangerous SportJournal of the Philosophy of Sport那32: 1-19 (2005).

[92]Patrick Findler,Should Kids Play (American) Football?,Journal of the Philosophy of Sport那42(3): 443-462 (2015).

[93]Daniel Goldberg,What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(MattResca&Mary McDonald Eds,2020)。Daniel Goldberg,What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, inSociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions(MattResca&Mary McDonald Eds,2020)。